Walled Fortress has been one of the most important strategic sites ever since the beginning of the Three Kingdom period in Korean history. The three kingdoms constantly fought over the control of the fortress along with Hangang (Han River) in order to rule the whole peninsula.
After the capital of Baekje (one of the three kingdoms) was settled in Wiryeseong of Hanam, the people regarded this fortress as a divine mountain that guarded their kingdom from the enemy.
This may be the reason why the shrine for Onjo, the father of Baekje, has been placed within this fortress. Later, during the Joseon Kingdom period especially from the reign of King Seonjo to King Sunjo, Namhansanseong functioned as the main fort in guarding the kingdom from enemies.
Among the many kings of Joseon dynasty, King Injo had spent many days in building the fortress, evacuating from the capital, and fighting against enemies.Namhansanseong fortress
had been constructed, starting from 1623, King Injo's first year at throne, to 1626. After the fortress was completed, Inhwagwan guesthouse, Yeonmugwan Hall, and Haenggung (temporary palace) were built one by one.
Now, these are invaluable cultural assets of Korea. Unfortunately, after the Buddhist system of the fortress was abolished in 1894, such valuable heritages were burnt to ashes by the Japanese army on August 1 in 1907 simply because there was too much armory and gunpowder stored.Namhansanseong is located in Sanseong-ri Jungbu-myeon Gwangju, about 24km southeast of Seoul, at east longitude 127 11' and north latitude 37 28'.
The fortress area is included in the administrative districts of Gwangju-gun, Hanam-si, and Seongnam-si. Most of the area within the fortress walls is included in Sanseong-ri Jungbu-myeon of Gwangju-gun.
80% of Gwangju-gun is composed of mountains, and the remaining 20% is plain used for agriculture.
There are many mountains large and small while long and narrow rivers flow north or northeast towards Hangang (Han River).